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visual self-recognition.

The origin of the concept

Although the term cultural competence was first mentioned in the article by Cross and her colleagues in 1989  Dr. Madeleine Leininger, a nursetheorist, was the first individual coin this term. She proposed the anthropological concept culture in nursing in her book, Nursing and Anthropology: Two Worlds to Blend, and rendered culturally congruent care, which was the original term of culturally competent care [

“Cultural” is the adjectival of culture, referring to things related to culture. Culture is a specific individual or group’s beliefs, values, norms, and lifeways that can be shared, learned, and transmitted; it influences people’s thinking, decisions, and behaviors in their everyday life The culture of clientsinvolves far more than ethnicity or race. Determinants, such as age, gender, education, religion, socioeconomic status, geographic region, and occupation, should also be considered The term “competence” is an individual’s ability to perform a job [ In nursing, competence can be defined as the level of performance embodied in effective application of attitudes, knowledge, skills, and judgments

Applications and discussions associated with cultural competence are noted throughout the literature in nursing, medicine, education, social services, and psychology. Cultural competence originated from the healthcare industrybecause healthcare delivery without cultural competence would directly influence health outcomes, which may lead to fatal consequences Therefore, most definitions of cultural competence are more or less related to nursing or medicine. In nursing, cultural competence has been studied since the late 1980s as cultural diversity among the American population became a crucial concern.