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Disentangling the impact of low cognitive ability

Our study is limited by the fact that we mainly focused on the effect of poverty through psychosocial and investment mechanisms. It is likely that other yet to be explored pathways may add to the explanatory power of the integrated model. Evidence from biological theories suggests that conduct problems may be a result of geneticand brain structure defects (e.g., . However, it has been argued that possible genetic risks of childhood conduct problems may remain latent until children are exposed to adversities such as, economic hardship In other words, economic disadvantage may serve as the catalyst for genetic predisposition to conduct problems to become a reality. Future studies examining these mechanisms would shed light on the interaction between poverty and neuropsychological processes.