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The Civil Rights

Impact in Britain[edit]

Black Power got a foothold in Britain when Carmichael came to London in July 1967 to attend the Dialectics of Liberation Congress. As well as his address at the Congress, he also made a speech at Speakers’ Corner. At that time, there was no Black Power organization in Britain, although there was Michael X‘s Racial Adjustment Action Society (RAAS).[49]However, this was more influenced by the Malcolm X‘s visit to Britain in 1964. Michael X also adopted Islam at this stage, whereas Black Power was not organized around any religious institution.

The Black Power Manifesto was launched on 10 November 1967, published by the Universal Coloured People’s AssociationObi Egbuna, the spokesperson for the group, claimed they had recruited 778 members in London during the previous seven weeks.[50] In 1968 Egbuna published Black Power or Death. He was also active with CLR JamesCalvin Hernton and others in the Antiuniversity of London,[51] set up following the Dialectics of Liberation Congress.

Black people in Britain who identified themselves as the British Black Power Movement (BBMP) formed in the 1960s. They worked with the U.S. Black Panther Party in 1967–68, and 1968–72.[52] The On March 2, 1970, roughly one hundred people protested outside the U.S. embassy in Grosvenor Square, London, in support of the U.S. Black Panther founder Bobby Seale, who was on trial for murder in New Haven, Connecticut.[52] They chanted “Free Bobby!” and carried posters proclaiming “Free, Free bobby Seale” and “You can kill a revolutionary but not a revolution.” [52] London police arrested sixteen of the protestors that day, three women and thirteen men with threatening and assaulting police officers, distributing a flier entitled “the Definition of Black Power”, intending to incite a breach of the peace, and willful damage to a police raincoat. The raincoat charge was dropped by the judge, but the judge found five of the accused guilty of the remaining charges.[52]