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Microarrays are a very useful tool in genomics because they:……….

The International Rice Genome Sequencing Project

This ongoing genomic research in rice is a collaborative effort of several public and private laboratories worldwide. This project aims to completely sequence the entire rice genome (12 rice chromosomes) and subsequently apply the knowledge to improve rice production.
In 2002, the draft genome sequences of two agriculturally important subspecies of rice, indica and japonica, were published. Once completed, the rice genome sequence will serve as a model system for other cereal grasses and will assist in identifying important genes in maize, wheat, oats, sorghum, and millet.
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Proteins are responsible for an endless number of tasks within the cell. The complete set of proteins in a cell can be referred to as its proteome and the study of protein structure and function and what every protein in the cell is doing is known as proteomics. The proteome is highly dynamic and it changes from time to time in response to different environmental stimuli. The goal of proteomics is to understand how the structure and function of proteins allow them to do what they do, what they interact with, and how they contribute to life processes.

An application of proteomics is known as protein “expression profiling” where proteins are identified at a certain time in an organism as a result of the expression to a stimulus. Proteomics can also be used to develop a protein-network map where interaction among proteins can be determined for a particular living system.

Proteomics can also be applied to map protein modification to determine the difference between a wild type and a genetically modified organism. It is also used to study protein-protein interactions involved in plant defense reactions.

For example, proteomics research at Iowa State University, USA includes:

  • an examination of changes of protein in the corn proteome during low temperatures which is a major problem for young corn seedlings;
  • analysis of the differences that occur in the genome expression in developing soybean stressed by high temperatures; and
  • identifying the proteins expressed in response to diseases like soybean cyst nematode.