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Prosocial/hostile roles and emotion comprehension

We are also aware that economic deprivation tends to vary over time rather than remain static. Thus, using economic deprivation when children were 10 months old may mask variability over time. However, compared to income in middle childhood, parental income during early childhood appears to be more influential on children’s developmental trajectories As evident in our findings, income measured when children were only 10 month old predicted a significant amount of variance in conduct trajectory. A subsequent analysis using cumulative measures of economic deprivation when the cohort children were about 1and 2 years of age did not alter our results. Finally, our study is correlational in nature and we were unable to model cross-lagged paths by adjusting for previous levels of predictor and mediator variables as these variables were not consistently available in our data set. Thus, our findings do not completely account for the directionality of effects and caution is needed when making causal attributions based solely on these findings. Although we used a sequential approach in selecting our predictor, mediator and outcome variables, experimental field studies and studies combining growth models with standard panel models offer future avenues for exploring causality of the underlying processes.