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integration and deculturation

Cultural identities interact, as people who have migrated come into contact not only with people of the majority culture but also with immigrants of both similar and disparate cultures. Resultant feelings of a sense of belonging and comfort or a sense of alienation and distress may occur. Bhugra and Jones proposed that various personal and relational factors during the migration process impact the mental well being of migrating people. During the post-migration phase, personal factors of importance in coping with adversity include cultural identity, social support networks, self-esteem, and self-concept. Achievement, racism, ethnic density, social isolation and unemployment are among the relational factors of importance in migrants during the post-migration phase