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infrared spectroscopy

In acidic solutions, H
2 is one of the most powerful oxidizers known and is stronger than chlorine, chlorine dioxide, and potassium permanganate. When used for removing organic stains from laboratory glassware it is referred to as Piranha solution. Also, through catalysis, H
2 can be converted into hydroxyl radicals (·OH), which are highly reactive.

Oxidant Reduced
product Oxidation
F2 HF 3.0
O3 O2 2.1
H2O2 H2O 1.8
KMnO4 MnO2 1.7
ClO2 HClO 1.5
Cl2 Cl− 1.4
In acidic solutions Fe2+
is oxidized to Fe3+
(hydrogen peroxide acting as an oxidizing agent):

2 Fe2+
(aq) + H
2 + 2 H+
(aq) → 2 Fe3+
(aq) + 2 H
and sulfite (SO2−
3) is oxidized to sulfate (SO2−
4). However, potassium permanganate is reduced to Mn2+
by acidic H

  1. Under alkaline conditions, however, some of these reactions reverse; for example, Mn2+
    is oxidized to Mn4+
    (as MnO

In basic solution, hydrogen peroxide can reduce a variety of inorganic ions. When it acts as a reducing agent, oxygen gas is also produced. For example, hydrogen peroxide will reduce sodium hypochlorite and potassium permanganate, which is a convenient method for preparing oxygen in the laboratory:

NaOCl + H
2 → O
2 + NaCl + H