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Geochemical Properties

The average worldwide concentration in igneous rocks is 65 ppm (1 ppm=1 mg/kg) with a range of 5–1,070 ppm. For limestone, the average concentration is 20 ppm with a range of <1–180 ppm. For sandstone, the average concentration is 30 ppm with a range of 5–170 ppm. Most zinc is distributed as a minor constituent of rock-forming minerals. Zinc ore is frequently found in the environment in the form of zinc sulphide (ZnS) and sphalerite (zinc iron sulphide) minerals. The most common impurities in zinc minerals are Fe, Cd and Pb (Adriano 2001). 2.3 Analytical Methods Analytical guidance for Canadian environmental quality guidelines can be found in Guidance Manual for Environmental Site Characterization in Support of Environmental and Human Health Risk Assessment Volume 4: Compendium of Analytical Methods for Contaminated Sites (CCME 2016). Volume 4 provides advice on sample preparation and analysis for zinc in soil, and recommended laboratory reporting limits. ICP-AES and ICP-MS1 are the methods most widely used used on environmental samples. Several of these analytical methods are adapted to various environmental media, including solid, liquid and sludge samples. The most recent version of the ICP-AES method approved by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) for analysis of metals is method 6010C (US EPA 2007b); for the ICP-MS method 6020B is the most recent (US EPA 2014), although US EPA method 200.8 (US EPA 1994) is also still commonly used; methods 7000B and 7010 are the most recent methods for Atomic Absorption