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Rights and responsibilities of the citizen

To identify mechanisms underlying the findings of the quantitative analysis, I bring qualitative evidence to bear on the fate of women in treated villages. Data are collected during
follow-up visits completed two years after implementation of the civics course in 16 treated
villages distributed proportionally among the five sample districts. Follow-up visits consist
of a focus group with the women’s group leader, female course participants, and nonparticipants, as well as interviews with several male course participants and village chiefs.16 A total
of 112 people were interviewed: 64 women, 33 men and 18 village chiefs (or their proxies).
Transcribed texts from the focus groups and interviews (~110 pages) were repeatedly
reviewed to discern patterns in responses about gender norms and discrimination from the
male and female perspective. A thorough review then identified participant responses that
reflected major themes in the texts. Where possible, I quantify these responses. Oftentimes,
however, I use illustrative quotes that the interviewer suspects are representative of broadlyshared but unspoken beliefs about gender norms and experiences of gender discrimination.
Given its sensitive nature, these beliefs or experiences expressed openly by some respondents
are likely under-reported or misrepresented by others. For instance, many women said they
were at ease during the course, but later confided the opposite in private conversation with
the interviewer. Similarly, men often claimed to support gender equality during the interview
but later made remarks to the contrary in informal conversation. I use direct quotes from
respondents to demonstrate