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Uranium is mined as uranium ore, of which the predominant forms are carnotite, pitchblende, tobernite, uraninite, uranophane, davidite, and autonite. Commercially important mines are located in northern Saskatchewan, Canada; the Rand gold fields in South Africa; as well as sites in Colorado and Utah (United States), Australia and France (Merck Index 1989, G. Bird, pers. comm. 2001). Currently, open-pit mining, in situ leaching, and underground mining are three techniques for the mining of uranium-containing ores (ATSDR 1999). This page revised December 2008 SOIL QUALITY GUIDELINES SSD URANIUM Page 4 Uranium ores in Canada are found mainly in northern Saskatchewan, Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, and the Northwest Territories. Minor deposits are located in British Columbia and Labrador (Energy, Mines and Resources Canada 1981). Northern Saskatchewan high-grade ores can contain an average of 15% uranium (G. Bird, pers. comm. 2001). The last operating uranium mine in Ontario was closed in 1996