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EMPLOYMENT Trade restrictions, such as high tariffs caused by the 1930‘s smoot-hawley bill, which forced the average tariff rates across the board to climb above 60%, contributed significantly to the great depression and have the potential to cause wide spread unemployment again. Unrestricted trade on the other hand improves the world‘s GNP and enhances employment generally for all nations. Importing products and foreign ownership can provide benefits to a nation. According to the institute for international Economics-a private, non- profit research institute – the growth of foreign ownership has not resulted in a loss of jobs for Americans; and foreign firms have paid their American workers the same, as have domestic firms. STANDARDS OF LIVING 0 5 10 15 20 1986-1990 1990-1994 1994-1998 1998-2002 Series1 Trade affords countries and their citizen‘s higher standards of living than other wise possible. Without trade, product shortages force people to pay more for less, products taken for granted, such as coffee and bananas may become unavailable overnight. Life in most countries would be much more difficult were it not for the many strategic metals that must be imported. Trade also makes it easier for industries to specialize and gain access to raw materials, while at the same time fostering competition and efficiency. A diffusion of innovations across national boundaries is useful by-products of international trade. A lack of such trade would inhibit the flow innovative ideas