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antigens and immunogens,

The classifications of febrile response  The febrile response is classified into four stages: Prodromal, chill, flush and defervescence. (See Table2.5) Pathophysiology 39 Table-2.5 STAGES OF THE FEBRILE RESPONSES STAGE CHARACTERSTICS • Prodromal • Chill • Flush • Defervescence • Nonspecific complaints such as mild headache, fatigue, general malaise, and muscle aches • Cutaneous vasoconstriction, “ goose pimples,” pale skin; feeling of being cold; generalized shaking chill; shivering causing body to reach new temperature set by control center in hypothalamus • Sensation of warmth throughout body; cutaneous vasodilatation; warming and flushing of the skin • S w e a t i n g ; d e c r e a s e i n b o d y temperature The released cytokines and the fever they trigger activate the body’s defense mechanisms. Beneficial aspects of fever include increased killing of microorganisms, increased phagocytes by neutrohils, and increased proliferation of T cells. Higher body temperature may also enhance the activity of interferon, body’s natural virus- fighting substance. Types of Inflammation Pathophysiology 40 The basic types of inflammation are acute, sub- acute, and chronic. In acute inflammation the healing occurs in 3 to 3 weeks and usually leaves no residual damage. Neutorphils are the predominate cell type at the site of inflammation. A sub acute inflammation has the features of the acute process but lasts longer. For example, infective endocarditic is a smoldering infection with acute inflammation, but it persists throughout weeks or months. Chronic Inflammation lasts for weeks, months, or even years. The injurious agent persists or repeatedly injures tissue. The predominate cell types at the site of inflammation are lymphocytes and macrophages. Chronic inflammatory process are debilitating and can be devastating. The prolongation and chronicity of any inflammation may be the result of an alteration in the immune response.