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Workflow for a post-event on-site damage and risk assessment

Assess and record immediate risks A post-event risk assessment aids immediate risk evaluation during a rapidly changing situation in an emergency. It helps to identify the proactive measures required for risk reduction and preparedness before cultural heritage suffers irreparable loss. The workflow for assessing risks is detailed below: 1 Identify the possible (natural or human-induced) hazards that could pose an imminent danger to lives, and/or which may cause damage to tangible and intangible heritage. Consider primary as well as secondary hazards. For example, an earthquake as a primary hazard may trigger secondary hazards, such as a tsunami, flooding, arson or vandalism. If these hazard sources are localised, identify their location in and around the site/building/community. Primary hazard Secondary hazard Natural hazards Earthquake Fire, landslide, tsunami, liquefaction Flood Landslide, mould/mildew, efflorescence, corrosion Tsunami Fire, floods Hurricane/Tornado Fire, wind damage Fire Water damage, mould/mildew, efflorescence, corrosion Volcano Fire, landslide, earthquake Human-induced hazards Warfare Fire, bombardment, demolition Terror Fire, bombardment Vandalism Demolition, theft 58 First Aid to Cultural Heritage in Times of Crisis | 1. Handbook 2 Identify the physical, social, economic, political and attitudinal vulnerabilities, which expose heritage to various hazards. These vulnerabilities can be identified as described below: a. Use the findings of your situation analysis to understand how and why the heritage was damaged, and how it may be exposed to secondary hazards. For example, a poorlymaintained heritage structure, which has suffered damage in a hurricane could continue to be exposed to secondary hazards, such as fire and rain damage. The lack of heritage maintenance could stem from a number of underlying social or economic causes, such as a lack of resources, or where the heritage belongs to a minority community. b. While recording damage, observe how the nature of the heritage could make it more susceptible to secondary hazards. For example, wet and soiled objects made from organic materials are more prone to mould and pest infestations. c. During on-site assessments, record activities in and around the site, or community, which may create or increase vulnerabilities and risks. For example, sheltering people in an open area adjacent to the heritage site could make it vulnerable to looting or vandalism, or a makeshift kitchen set up near the site, could expose the site to the risk of fire.