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War of the Fourth Coalition and Tilsit

For the crowning, as recorded in the official procès-verbal of the Coronation[9] the formula Coronet vos Deus…, a variation to the plural of the traditional French formula Coronet te Deus (God crown you with a crown of glory and righteousness…) – a formula that is also proper to the English Coronation rite – was used exclusively, instead of the Roman formula Accipe coronam… (Receive the crown…). This differed to the usage of the French royal coronations, in which both formulas – the Anglo-French Coronet te Deus… and the Roman Accipe coronam regni… – were recited successively. While the Pope recited the above-mentioned formula,Napoleon turned and removed his laurel wreath and crowned himself and then crowned the kneeling Joséphine with a small crown surmounted by a cross, which he had first placed on his own head.[4] The crowning formula was varied to use a plural form (“Coronet vos…” instead of “Coronet te…”), precisely because the Coronation of Josephine followed immediately after the assumption of the Crown by Napoleon. As for the omitted Roman formula Accipe coronam…, which depicted the monarch as receiving his crown from the Church, its use would have clashed with Napoleon’s decision to crown himself. Historian J. David Markham, who also serves as head of the International Napoleonic Society,[10] alleged in his book Napoleon For Dummies “Napoleon’s detractors like to say that he snatched the crown from the Pope, or that this was an act of unbelievable arrogance, but neither of those charges holds water. Napoleon was simply symbolizing that he was becoming emperor based on his own merits and the will of the people, not because of some religious consecration. The Pope knew about this move from the beginning and had no objection (not that it would have mattered).”[11] British historian Vincent Cronin wrote in his book Napoleon Bonaparte: An Intimate Biography “Napoleon told Pius that he would be placing the crown on his own head. Pius raised no objection.”[12] At Napoleon’s enthronement the Pope said, “May God confirm you on this throne and may Christ give you to rule with him in his eternal kingdom”.[nb 7] Limited in his actions, Pius VII proclaimed further the Latin formula Vivat imperator in aeternum! (“May the Emperor live forever!”), which was echoed by the full choirs in a Vivat, followed by “Te Deum”. After the Mass was finished, the Pope retired to the Sacristy, as he objected to presiding over or witnessing the civil oath that followed, due to its contents. With his hands on the Bible, Napoleon took the oath