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Values-Centered Code of Ethics

Reputational Risk
Potential for harm resulting from the loss of stakeholder trust.

Rules-Centered Code of Conduct
Frequently takes the form of a list of behavioral requirements, the violation of which could result in disciplinary action.

A small selection intended to be representative of the whole. For example, survey research is frequently conducted on a randomly-selected portion of population rather than a census of the entire group. Sample selection can be stratified to enable result to be representative of identified subgroups as well as the population as a whole.

Belief in the safety of one’s person and position. Security is a driving factor in employee reporting.

A set of questions used to examine a condition, situation or value.

Generally, referring to a state or condition that can be maintained over an indefinite period of time. Commonly used with development as in: “Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (from the landmark 1987 publication “Our Common Future” by the World Commission on Environment and Development).


  1. Sharing information and acting in an open manner.
  2. A principle that allows those affected by administrative decisions, business transactions or charitable work to know not only the basic facts and figures but also the mechanisms and processes. It is the duty of civil servants, managers and trustees to act visibly, predictably and understandably (based on 2006 publications by Transparency International,

The core beliefs we hold regarding what is right and fair in terms of our actions and our interactions with others. Another way to characterize values is that they are what an individual believes to be of worth and importance to their life (valuable) (from “What is the Difference Between Ethics, Morals and Values?”, Frank Navran).
Values-Centered Code of Ethics
A set of principles for an organization and its employees grounded in ideals (such as integrity, trust-worthiness and responsibility) which guide workplace decision-making and conduct

Whistleblower (ECI definition)
Any employee who reports misconduct when observed in the workplace. Although some believe whistleblowers are distinct from internal reporters, ECI research indicates that nearly all employees who report to someone outside their organization report internally as well. Furthermore, internal reporting always precedes reporting externally. External reporting is usually a function of the organization’s (perceived) lack of adequate response to the report (for more information, see “Inside the Mind of a Whistleblower, 2010, Ethics Resource Center).