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Measuring program impacts on earnings and employment

In March 1997, seven cities—Baltimore, Maryland; Chattanooga, Tennessee; Cleveland, Ohio; Dayton, Ohio; Los Angeles, California; St. Paul, Minnesota; and Seattle, Washington—were selected to participate in the demonstration. At that point, the Jobs-Plus and comparison developments were selected randomly from the pool of candidate developments for each city, and the main demonstration planning stage began. In 1999, due to a shift in local priorities, Cleveland left the demonstration by mutual agreement between its housing authority and the national Jobs-Plus team. In addition, Seattle subsequently left the full demonstration because its housing authority received a federal HOPE VI grant to fund major renovations that will displace many residents of its Jobs-Plus development. Seattle continues to run its Jobs-Plus program, but this program is now being evaluated separately from the program in other sites (although there continue to be many points of overlap). In sum, the full Jobs-Plus research demonstration is operating in five of itsseven original cities. In four of these cities the program is operating in one public housing development and in the fifth city, Los Angeles, it is operating in two housing developments. Census data from 1990 indicate that the areas in which the Jobs-Plus developments are located are similar to those featured in the literature on high-poverty communities. As shown in Table 1, these are primarily census tracts populated by people of color. They are also tracts in which a high proportion of households are headed by single parents, many are living in poverty, and large numbers of adults do not have a high school diploma.