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urban environments

There is a wide gender disparity among Caribbean women in the American workforce. While the females have higher degree of immigration and 73 percent are participants in the labor force, they often lag in terms of earnings by 9 percent to 13 percent, thereby resulting in economic problems (Wells-Wilbon & Vakalahi, 2015).Although they have a strong and long-standing immigration history to the United States, black Caribbean women still remain a disadvantaged and underserved population due to racism and anti-foreign attitudes. While such attitudes have improved gradually over time, they continue to permeate into almost all aspects of the American social system. For instance, health problems, lower level of education, and increased rates of single parent households, frustrate their efforts to seek employment opportunities in the United States. During their childhood, black Caribbean girls, experience strenuous problems due to urban lifestyle (Wells-Wilbon & Vakalahi, 2015). These include social isolation from America’s mainstream culture, exposure to slum culture, and an attitude of materialism as a result of the excessive consumption of media contents. Those who reside in communities with insufficient resources, inadequate schools, and high rates of domestic violence often face the biggest obstacles to seeking a decent employment opportunity. In the face of these adversities, Caribbean black women, especially those who reside in urban centers, often maintain that their Caribbean heritage and identity is still significant to them in their effort to buffer the challenges of residing in an urban neighborhood (Wells-Wilbon & Vakalahi, 2015)