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Transactions and Concurrency Control

Issues depends on Security types and database threats.

Security Types includes:
1. Legal and ethical issues regarding the right to access certain information. Some information may be deemed to be private and cannot be accessed by unauthorized persons.
2. Policy issues at the governmental, institutional, or corporate level as to what kinds of information should not be made publicly available for example credit ratings.
3. System related issues such as system levels at which various security functions should be enforced for example whether a security function should be handled at the physical hardware level, operating system level and the DBMS level.
4. The need in some organization to identify multiple security levels and to categorize the data and users based on these classifications for example top secret, secret, confidential, and unclassified. The security policy of the organization with respect to permitting access to various classifications of data must be enforced.

Database Threats includes:
1. Loss of integrity – Database integrity refers to the requirement that information be protected from improper modification includes creation, insertion, modification, changing the status of data, and deletion. Integrity lost if authorized changes are made to the data by either intentional or accidental acts. If the loss of system or data integrity is not corrected, continued use of the contaminated system or corrupted data would result in inaccuracy, fraud or erroneous decisions.
2. Loss of availability – Database availability refers to making objects available to a human user or a program to which they have a legitimate right.
3. Loss of confidentiality – Data confidentiality refers to the protection of data from unauthorized disclosure. The impact is of confidential information can range from violation of data privacy act. Unauthorized, unanticipated or unintentional disclosure could result in loss of public confidence, or legal action against the organization.