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Tourism management

n 1936, the League of Nations defined a foreign tourist as “someone traveling abroad for at least twenty-four hours”. Its successor, the United Nations, amended this definition in 1945, by including a maximum stay of six months.[17]

In 1941, Hunziker and Kraft defined tourism as “the sum of the phenomena and relationships arising from the travel and stay of non-residents, insofar as they do not lead to permanent residence and are not connected with any earning activity.”[18][19] In 1976, the Tourism Society of England’s definition was: “Tourism is the temporary, short-term movement of people to destinations outside the places where they normally live and work and their activities during the stay at each destination. It includes movements for all purposes.”[20] In 1981, the International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism defined tourism in terms of particular activities chosen and undertaken outside the home.[21]

In 1994, the United Nations identified three forms of tourism in its Recommendations on Tourism Statistics:[22]

  • Domestic tourism, involving residents of the given country traveling only within this country
  • Inbound tourism, involving non-residents traveling in the given country
  • Outbound tourism, involving residents traveling in another country