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thyronamines function mechanism inhibit of neuronal activity

Both excess and deficiency of thyroxine can cause disorders.

  • Hyperthyroidism (an example is Graves’ disease) is the clinical syndrome caused by an excess of circulating free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine, or both. It is a common disorder that affects approximately 2% of women and 0.2% of men. Thyrotoxicosis is often used interchangeably with hyperthyroidism, but there are subtle differences. Although thyrotoxicosis also refers to an increase in circulating thyroid hormones, it can be caused by the intake of thyroxine tablets or by an over-active thyroid, whereas hyperthyroidism refers solely to an over-active thyroid.
  • Hypothyroidism (an example is Hashimoto’s thyroiditis) is the case where there is a deficiency of thyroxine, triiodothyronine, or both.
  • Clinical depression can sometimes be caused by hypothyroidism.[52] Some research[53] has shown that T3 is found in the junctions of synapses, and regulates the amounts and activity of serotoninnorepinephrine, and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain.
  • Hair loss can sometimes be attributed to a malfunction of T3 and T4. Normal hair growth cycle may be affected disrupting the hair growth.

Preterm births can suffer neurodevelopmental disorders due to lack of maternal thyroid hormones, at a time when their own thyroid is unable to meet their postnatal needs. Also in normal pregnancies, adequate levels of maternal thyroid hormone artal in order to ensure thyroid hormone availability for the foetus and its developing brain.[ Congenital hypothyroidism occurs in every 1 in 1600–3400 newborns with most being born asymptomatic and developing related symptoms weeks after birth