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These mRNA molecules

The nuclear membrane has pores through which the contents of the nucleus communicate with the rest of the cell. The nuclear membrane tightly controls what gets into the nucleus and what gets out. This regulation of communication by the nuclear membrane has a great effect on what a cell looks like and what it does.

Chromosomes are also located in the nucleus and are basically organized structures of DNA and proteins. In eukaryotes, the chromosomal DNA is packaged and organized into a condensed structure called chromatin. Chromosomes are single pieces of DNA along with genes, proteins, and nucleotides, while chromatin is a condensed package of chromosomes that basically allows all the necessary DNA to fit inside the nucleus. 

We will dive deeper into the world of chromosomes in another section, but for now, just remember that eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells each have genomes, the name for the entire set of an organism’s genetic and hereditary information. Genomes are entirely encoded in either the DNA or the RNA. In the case of eukaryotes, multiple linear pieces of DNA comprise its genome.

In eukaryotic organisms, the DNA inside the nucleus is also closely associated with large protein complexes called histones. Along with the nuclear membrane, histones help control which messages get sent from the DNA to the rest of the cell. 

The information stored in DNA gets transferred to the rest of the cell by a very elegant process—a process so common and so important to life that it is called the central dogma of biology. No, really.

In eukaryotic cells, the first stage of this process takes place in the nucleus and consists of specific portions of the DNA, called genes, being copied, or transcribed, into small strands of ribonucleic acid, or RNA. RNA containing a copy, or transcript, of DNA is called messenger RNA, or mRNA. These mRNA molecules are then physically transported out of the nucleus through the pores (holes) in the nuclear membrane and into the cytoplasm, where they are eventually translated into proteins by ribosomes.