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Theoretical analysis within secondary research

A central feature of the Jobs-Plus evaluation design is its focus on impacts from two different perspectives: (1) with respect to specific individual public housing residents (people) and (2) with respect to specific public housing developments (place). The individual perspective relates to a particular group of persons who were living in Jobs-Plus developments at a specific point in time. Thus, it focuses on a single resident cohort. From this perspective, the Jobs-Plus impact analysis will address the question, “How did the demonstration program affect the future experiences of its target individuals, whether or not they moved away?” The housing development perspective relates to groups of different persons who were living in Jobs-Plus developments at different points in time. Thus, it focuses on a series of consecutive, partly overlapping resident cohorts. From this perspective, the Jobs-Plus impact analysis will address the question, “How did the demonstration program affect conditions in its target developments, given that different people were living there at different times?” The distinction between these two perspectives is key to any evaluation of a place-based initiative because sample members can move into and out of its target area. For example, students can move into and out of schools that are implementing whole-school reforms, families can move into and out of communities that are implementing health education programs, and employees can move into and out of firms that are implementing worker retention programs.15 In these ways, mobility drives a conceptual and operational wedge between people and place