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the viable technologies, and anticipated development.

It is necessary to distinguish between the architecture of the user’s world and the engineered systems architecture. The former represents and addresses problems and solutions in the user’s world. It is principally captured in the computer-human-interfaces (CHI) of the engineered system. The engineered system represents the engineering solutions— how the engineer proposes to develop and/or select and combine the components of the technical infrastructure to support the CHI. In the absence of an experienced architect, there is an unfortunate tendency to confuse the two architectures. But— the engineer thinks in terms of hardware and software and the technical solution space, whereas the user may be thinking in terms of solving a problem of getting people from point A to point B in a reasonable amount of time and with a reasonable expenditure of energy, or of getting needed information to customers and staff. A systems architect is expected to combine knowledge of both the architecture of the user’s world and of (all potentially useful) engineering systems architectures. The former is a joint activity with the user; the latter is a joint activity with the engineers. The product is a set of high level requirements reflecting the user’s requirements which can be used by the engineers to develop systems design requirements.

Because requirements evolve over the course of a project, especially a long one, an architect is needed until the system is accepted by the user: the architect ensures that all changes and interpretations made during the course of development do not compromise the user’s viewpoint.