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the supply of nonlogical constants

Furthermore, in most of the usual logical semantics the very relations that connect language with reality are left unanalyzed and static. Ludwig Wittgenstein, an Austrian-born philosopher, discussed informally the “language-games”—or rule-governed activities connecting a language with the world—that are supposed to give the expressions of language their meanings; but these games have scarcely been related to any systematic logical theory. Only a few other attempts to study the dynamics of the representative relationships between language and reality have been made. The simplest of these suggestions is perhaps that the semantics of first-order logic should be considered in terms of certain games (in the precise sense of game theory) that are, roughly speaking, attempts to verify a given first-order sentence. The truth of the sentence would then mean the existence of a winning strategy in such a game.

Limitations of logicMany philosophers are distinctly uneasy about the wider sense of logic. Some of their apprehensions, voiced with special eloquence by a contemporary Harvard University logician, Willard Van Quine, are based on the claim that relations of synonymy cannot be fully determined by empirical means. Other apprehensions have to do with the fact that most extensions of first-order logic do not admit of a complete axiomatizationi.e., their truths cannot all be derived from any finite—or recursive (see below)—set of axioms. This fact was shown by the important “incompleteness” theorems proved in 1931 by Kurt Gödel, an Austrian (later, American) logician, and their various consequences and extensions. (Gödel showed that any consistent axiomatic theory that comprises a certain amount of elementary arithmetic is incapable of being completely axiomatized.) Higher-order logics are in this sense incomplete and so are all reasonably powerful systems of set theory. Although a semantical theory can be built for them, they can scarcely be characterized any longer as giving actual rules—in any case complete rules—for right reasoning or for valid argumentation. Because of this shortcoming, several traditional definitions of logic seem to be inapplicable to these parts of logical studies.