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the somatic cells

30. How many pairs of chromosomes are there in a somatic cell (diploid)?

31. How many chromosomes are there in a gamete (sex cell) (haploid)?  

32. What is the female’s gamete called? What is the father’s gamete called? 

33. Every female gamete has an x chromosome. Where does the zygote get the second pair of that chromosome? What two possible chromosomes can it get? 

34. What would happen if the sex cell was diploid? 

35. Two gametes come together to make a __________.  

36. How do regulatory genes differ from structural genes? 

37. Along every chromosome, specific genes have specific physical locations, called a ______________.

38. Alleles, the subunits of a gene, are different chemical structures at the same locus – chemically alternative versions of the same gene. 

39. The two alleles at any one genetic locus can be chemically identical, or chemically different. They identify the genotype. What is meant by genotype?

40. Mendel’s 1st Law, the Law of Segregation says that mother and father contribute equally to an offspring’s genetic makeup. For each gene the offspring have one allele from the mother and one from the father. These 2 alleles can be chemically the same – homozygous – or chemically different – ___________.