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Parental economic deprivation

Two items, equivalized income and subjective poverty, were used to measure parental economic deprivation. These were obtained when children were about 10 months of age. To measure equivalised income, parents were first asked to select from a range of 17 income bands (1–less than £3,999 to 17–56,000 or more), the amount that best represented their family income before tax including all state benefits and interests. All income bands between the minimum and maximum described above had a range of about £2,000 (i.e., 4,000–5,999; 6,000–7,999, etc.). The figures were then equalized by adjusting for differences in household size and compositio and converted into quintiles with a range from  Subjective poverty was measured through perceived economic pressure. Parents were asked to rate how they feel about managing on their present income. Responses were on a 5-point scale ranging from 1 (Living very comfortably on present income) to 5 (Finding it very difficult on present income). Higher scores on both items represent a higher level of deprivation.