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the regulation of calcium levels in muscle cells

Plant cells have chloroplasts, while animal cells don’t. The chloroplasts in a plant cell are where photosynthesis happens, converting the energy from the sun into chemical energy that the plant cells can use. Plant cells also have a vacuole or seemingly large empty space in the middle of the cell. However, the vacuole of a plant cell actually contains important chemicals like sugar and water.

Tiny organelles called vesicles can also be found floating around within the cytoplasm. The vesicles are responsible for carrying materials in, out, and around the cell. The vesicles carry material from one part of the cell to another, but they also transport waste products outside the cell in a process called exocytosis.

There are also some small structures found in the cytoplasm that carry out various functions depending on the type of cell. Peroxisomes are responsible for collecting toxic chemicals and breaking them down into harmless byproducts, while centrioles are unique to animal cells and they guide the division and organization of chromosomes as cells divide. Finally, lysosomes are structures secreted by the Golgi apparatus which can take large molecules and break them apart into smaller chunks the cell can utilize.

Cells are complex systems with many moving parts that work together to form the diverse abundance of life we all around us.