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the organism’s DNA homoplasmic

41. How many daughter cells – gametes – does meiosis produce? 

42. Each of the daughter cells produced by meiosis has only one set of chromosomes, not pairs. Is it haploid or diploid? 

43. Every gamete, having this one set, can pass on only one allele for each gene. Say the gamete that the father contributes has the allele for brown hair (dominant), and the allele from the mother is for red (recessive), what color hair will the offspring have? Make a Punnett Square to figure this out.

44. Look at Figure 3.21 on page 64. Why are all the first generation flowers red? Why does the white color reappear in the second generation? 

45. When alleles are heterozygous, the dominant one will be expressed in the ___________. 

The recessive gene will not be expressed. The phenotype is the visible manifestation of the gene.  

People who have the genotype AA or AO have the same phenotype. What is the phenotype? 

46. Sharon’s blood type is A. Do you know what her genotype is? What two genotypes could she have? 

47. What has to be the case for a recessive allele to be expressed? 

48. What is meant by two alleles being codominant? Which allele is expressed if two alleles are codominant? If someone has type AB blood what is that person’s phenotype and genotype. 

49. Genetics is complex, genes don’t match simply to traits. Some genes are polygenic.

What is meant by polygenic?  What is pleiotropy? 

50. In humans, thousands of complex phenotypes, such as birth weight, height, skin color, head form, tooth size and eye shape, have multiple genetic components and are influenced by what other kind of factors? 

51. Environmental factors that affect a mother can also affect her developing fetus. If the fetus is female, the developing ova may also be affected so that environmental factors operating at a fixed point in time can affect the health and well-being of subsequent generations.  

52. What is a simple definition of epigenetics? 

53. From conception, ‘epigenetic’ mechanisms within cells may be activated by a variety of behavioral and environmental factors. What are some of these?