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the order of the Value Chain?

he history of accounting is thousands of years old and can be traced to ancient civilizations.[12][13][14] The early development of accounting dates back to ancient Mesopotamia, and is closely related to developments in writingcounting and money;[12] there is also evidence of early forms of bookkeeping in ancient Iran,[15][16] and early auditing systems by the ancient Egyptians and Babylonians.[13]By the time of Emperor Augustus, the Roman government had access to detailed financial information.[17]

Double-entry bookkeeping was pioneered in the Jewish community of the early-medieval Middle East[18][19] and was further refined in medieval Europe.[20] With the development of joint-stock companies, accounting split into financial accounting and management accounting.

The first work on a double-entry bookkeeping system was published in Italy, by Luca Pacioli (“Father of Accounting”).[21][22] Accounting began to transition into an organized profession in the nineteenth century,[23] with local professional bodies in England merging to form the Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales in 1880.[24]