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The Meta-analysis

Hearing aids or other amplification devices can be useful for language learning in those with hearing loss.[20] Speech therapy may be useful and is recommended to be started around nine months of age.[20] As those with Down syndrome typically have good hand-eye coordination, learning sign language may be possible.[32] Augmentative and alternative communication methods, such as pointing, body language, objects, or pictures, are often used to help with communication.[94] Behavioral issues and mental illness are typically managed with counseling or medications.[9]

Education programs before reaching school age may be useful.[1] School-age children with Down syndrome may benefit from inclusive education (whereby students of differing abilities are placed in classes with their peers of the same age), provided some adjustments are made to the curriculum.[95] Evidence to support this, however, is not very strong.[96]In the United States, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1975 requires public schools generally to allow attendance by students with Down syndrome.[97]

Individuals with Down syndrome may learn better visually. Drawing may help with language, speech, and reading skills. Children with Down syndrome still often have difficulty with sentence structure and grammar, as well as developing the ability to speak clearly.[98] Several types of early intervention can help with cognitive development. Efforts to develop motor skills include physical therapy, speech and language therapy, and occupational therapy. Physical therapy focuses specifically on motor development and teaching children to interact with their environment. Speech and language therapy can help prepare for later language. Lastly, occupational therapy can help with skills needed for later independence.[