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The lung cancer risk

The lung cancer risk in females is 2.3 times higher than that of males. The results indicated that the odds ratio of 2.4 and the risk ratio of 2.3 are close to each other. That is one of the interesting features of the odds ratio: when the outcome is not common, the odds ratio provides an appropriate approximation of the relative risk.

Cross-sectional studies: prevalence

A cross-sectional study has to be representative of the whole population. Therefore, appropriate probability sampling technique need to be used in determining the sample size which will represent the population. In random sampling, each element/participant has an equal chance of being participated in the study through the use of a procedure of random selection [9]. For instance, a study of the prevalence of hypertension among men aged 40-70 years in Kano city should comprise a random sample of all men aged 40-70 years in that city. Thus, hypertension male patients in Kano city who fall within the stated range (40-70) have an equal probability of being participated in the research.