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the fundamental level the science

 He placed at the fundamental level the science that does not presuppose any other sciences—viz., mathematics—and then ordered the levels above it in such a way that each science depends upon, and makes use of, the sciences below it on the scale: thus, arithmetic and the theory of numbers are declared to be presuppositions for geometry and mechanicsastronomyphysicschemistrybiology (including physiology), and sociology. Each higher-level science, in turn, adds to the knowledge content of the science or sciences on the levels below, thus enriching this content by successive specialization. Psychology, which was not founded as a formal discipline until the late 19th century, was not included in Comte’s system of the sciences. Anticipating some ideas of 20th-century behaviourism and physicalism, Comte assumed that psychology, such as it was in his day, should become a branch of biology (especially of brain neurophysiology), on the one hand, and of sociology, on the other. As the “father” of sociology, Comte maintained that the social sciences should proceed from observations to general laws, very much as (in his view) physics and chemistry do. He was skeptical of introspection in psychology, being convinced that in attending to one’s own mental states, these states would be irretrievably altered and distorted. In thus insisting on the necessity of objective observation, he was close to the basic principle of the methodology of 20th-century behaviourism.

Among Comte’s disciples or sympathizers were Cesare Lombroso, an Italian psychiatrist and criminologist, and Paul-Emile LittréJ.-E. Renan, and Louis Weber.