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The evolution of deception”, Journal of Nonverbal Behavior,

Weaponized military robots are now a reality. While in general a human remains in the loop for decision making regarding the deployment of lethal force, the trend is clear that targeting and engagement decisions are being moved forward onto these machines as the science of autonomy progresses. The dangers of abuse of unmanned robotic systems in war, such as the Predator and Reaper, are well 4 documented, which occurs even when a human operator is directly in charge [Sullivan 10, Filkins 10, Adams 10]. But what will happen as the targeting decisions become more and more autonomous, which appears inevitable due to factors such as the ever increasing tempo of the battlefield, the need to limit casualties, the requirement for fewer soldiers to do more, and the desired ability to project force unlike never before? In a recent book [Arki