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The effects of ice on deterioration of aircraft performance

In 1441, King Sejong‘s son, Prince Munjong of Korea, invented the first standardized rain gauge.[17] These were sent throughout the Joseon dynasty of Korea as an official tool to assess land taxes based upon a farmer’s potential harvest. In 1450, Leone Battista Alberti developed a swinging-plate anemometer, and was known as the first anemometer.[18] In 1607, Galileo Galilei constructed a thermoscope. In 1611, Johannes Kepler wrote the first scientific treatise on snow crystals: “Strena Seu de Nive Sexangula (A New Year’s Gift of Hexagonal Snow)”.[19] In 1643, Evangelista Torricelli invented the mercury barometer.[18] In 1662, Sir Christopher Wren invented the mechanical, self-emptying, tipping bucket rain gauge. In 1714, Gabriel Fahrenheit created a reliable scale for measuring temperature with a mercury-type thermometer.[20] In 1742, Anders Celsius, a Swedish astronomer, proposed the “centigrade” temperature scale, the predecessor of the current Celsius scale.[21] In 1783, the first hair hygrometer was demonstrated by Horace-Bénédict de Saussure. In 1802–1803, Luke Howardwrote On the Modification of Clouds, in which he assigns cloud types Latin names.[22] In 1806, Francis Beaufort introduced his system for classifying wind speeds.[23] Near the end of the 19th century the first cloud atlases were published, including the International Cloud Atlas, which has remained in print ever since. The April 1960 launch of the first successful weather satelliteTIROS-1, marked the beginning of the age where weather information became available globally.