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the Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects

During the 17th century, approximately 400,000 English people migrated to Colonial America.[13] However, only half stayed permanently. From 1700 to 1775 between 400-500,000 immigrated. Only 45,000 English supposedly immigrated in the period 1701 to 1775 (on Butler, Becoming America, The Revolution before 1776, 2000, p. 34-35 ISBN0-674-00091-9), a figure questioned as too low (The Oxford History of the British Empire, The Eighteenth Century, Ed. P. J. Marshall, p. 3 ISBN0-19-820563-5 the number given is at 80,000 less 29,000 Welsh which seems strange to the author, James Horn; Duncan also regards this as a “mystery”) not including the 50,000-120,000 convicts transported, most of whom were English: the rest, 400-450,000 were Scots, Scots-Irish from Ulster, Germans and Swiss, French Huguenots, and involuntarily 350,000 Africans (Encyclopedia of the Colonial and Revolutionary America, 1996 p. 200-202 ISBN0-306-80687-8; Jon Butler, Becoming America, The Revolution before 1776, 2000, pp. 16–49 ISBN0-674-00091-9). Over half of all European immigrants to Colonial America during the 17th and 18th centuries arrived as indentured servants.[14] They numbered 350,000 (Encyclopedia, p. 202). The European populations of the Middle Colonies of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Delaware were ethnically very mixed, the English constituting only 30 in Pennsylvania, 40% in New Jersey to 45% in New York (numbered22 thousand or 18% in NY) (Duncan. op. cit. p. 10). The mid-19th century saw an influx mainly from northern Europe from the same major ethnic groups as for the Colonial Period but with large numbers of Catholic Irish and Scandinavians added to the mix; the late 19th and early 20th-century immigrants were mainly from Southern and Eastern Europe, but there were also several million immigrants from Canada; post-1965 most came from Latin America and Asia.