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. “The Conditions of Moral Realism”.

Publication ethics[edit]

Publication ethics is the set of principles that guide the writing and publishing process for all professional publications. To follow these principles, authors must verify that the publication does not contain plagiarism or publication bias.[77] As a way to avoid misconduct in research these principles can also apply to experiments that are referenced or analyzed in publications by ensuring the data is recorded honestly and accurately.[78]

Plagiarism is the failure to give credit to another author’s work or ideas, when it is used in the publication.[79] It is the obligation of the editor of the journal to ensure the article does not contain any plagiarism before it is published.[80] If a publication that has already been published is proven to contain plagiarism, the editor of the journal can retract the article.[81]

Publication bias occurs when the publication is one-sided or “prejudiced against results”.[82] In best practice, an author should try to include information from all parties involved, or affected by the topic. If an author is prejudiced against certain results, than it can “lead to erroneous conclusions being drawn”.[83]

Misconduct in research can occur when an experimenter falsifies results.[84] Falsely recorded information occurs when the researcher “fakes” information or data, which was not used when conducting the actual experiment.[84] By faking the data, the researcher can alter the results from the experiment to better fit the hypothesis they originally predicted. When conducting medical research, it is important to honor the healthcare rights of a patient by protecting their anonymity in the publication.[77] Respect for autonomy is the principle that decision-making should allow individuals to be autonomous; they should be able to make decisions that apply to their own lives. This means that individuals should have control of their lives. Justice is the principle that decision-makers must focus on actions that are fair to those affected. Ethical decisions need to be consistent with the ethical theory. There are cases where the management has made decisions that seem to be unfair to the employees, shareholders, and other stakeholders (Solomon, 1992, pp49). Such decisions are unethical.