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the chemical nature of the substance

Abnormal and normal accumulation of intracellular substances Intracellular accumulations often result from environmental changes or an inability of the cell to process materials (substances) that cannot be metabolized by the cells. These substances may accumulate in the cytoplasm. As a result common changes include:- – Cellular swelling Pathophysiology 4 – Lipid accumulation (Fatty change process in the cytoplasm of cells). – Glycogen depositions (Excess deposition of glycogen in organs). – Calcification (precipitation of calcium in dead or Chronic inflammation area) – Hyaline infiltration( characteristic alteration within cells or in the Extra-cellular spaces that appear as inclusion on stained histology). 1.1.3. Changes to cellular size or numbers – Changes in size and numbers of the cells are usually as a result of response to adapt to harmful agents. – The changes include:- I) Atrophy – Atrophy refers to a decrease in cell size. – Causes: – Decreased work load (Disuse atrophy) – Loss of nerve supply – Decreased blood supply – Inadequate nutrition – Loss of hormonal stimulation Eg. – Uterine atrophy after menopause. – Physiologic Atrophy Eg. – Loss of muscle bulk with ageing. Pathophysiology 5 II) Dysplasia:- – Dysplasia refers to the appearance of cells that have undergone some atypical changes in response to chronic irritation. – It is not a true adaptive process in that it serves no specific functions. – It is controlled reproduction of cells, but closely related to malignancy in that it may transform into uncontrolled, rapid reproduction. – It is complete loss of normal architectural orientation of one cell with the next both in shape and size. – Epithelial cells are common sites for dysplastic changes. Eg: -Bronchial epithelium, – Cervical epithelium, etc. III) Hyperplasia:- – It is defined as increase of tissue mass due to an increase in the number of cells. – It occurs in cells that are under increased physiologic workload or stimulations. I.e. the cells are capable of dividing thus increasing their numbers.