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The chelating properties of the sulfur-thiol functional group


Diazoxide was purchased from Sigma-Aldrich. All other commercial reagents used were of analytical grade.


All animal experiments were conducted in accordance with the CPCSEA (Committee for the purpose of conduct and supervision of experiments on animals) guidelines, approved by the institutional animal ethical committee (IAEC No. 214/SASTRA/IAEC), Central Animal Facility, SASTRA University. To demonstrate the anti-urolithiasis property and mechanism of action of sodium thiosulfate we used male albino Wistar rats aged 7 to 8 weeks (180-200g). Animals were kept in polycarbonate cages at a controlled temperature of 25±3°C and 60±10% relative humidity with a 12 h each of dark and light cycle. Rats were acclimatized for one week with standard laboratory diet and tap drinking water before the start of experiment.

Study design

Forty two male Wistar rats were assigned randomly into seven equal groups. All the doses were selected based on previous studies (69).

  • Group-1 (Normal control): received water ad libitum for 21 days.
  • Group-2 (Induction control): received 0.4% ethylene glycol (EG) along with 1% ammonium chloride for one week followed by only 0.75% EG in drinking water for two subsequent weeks.
  • Groups-3 to 7 received the same treatment as group 2 along with the following drug treatments:
  • Group-3 (STS): received sodium thiosulfate (400mg/Kg b.wt.) intraperitoneally for 21 days.
  • Group-4 (Diazoxide): received diazoxide (mito KATP channel opener; 5mg/Kg b.wt.) intraperitoneally for 21 days.
  • Group-5 (Glibenclamide): received glibenclamide (mito KATP channel closer; 10mg/ Kg b.wt.) intraperitoneally for 21 days
  • Group-6 (STS+Diazoxide): received diazoxide 30min. before administration of STS for 21 days.
  • Group-7 (STS+Glibenclamide): received glibenclamide 30min. before administration of STS for 21 days.