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the basis of hybrid orbitals

  1. Consider nitrous acid, HNO2 (HONO).(a) Write a Lewis structure.(b) What are the electron pair and molecular geometries of the internal oxygen and nitrogen atoms in the HNO2 molecule?(c) What is the hybridization on the internal oxygen and nitrogen atoms in HNO2?
  2. Strike-anywhere matches contain a layer of KClO3 and a layer of P4S3. The heat produced by the friction of striking the match causes these two compounds to react vigorously, which sets fire to the wooden stem of the match. KClO3 contains the ClO3 ion. P4S3 is an unusual molecule with the skeletal structure.
    (a) Write Lewis structures for P4S3 and the ClO3 ion.(b) Describe the geometry about the P atoms, the S atom, and the Cl atom in these species.(c) Assign a hybridization to the P atoms, the S atom, and the Cl atom in these species.(d) Determine the oxidation states and formal charge of the atoms in P4S3 and the ClO3 ion.
  3. Identify the hybridization of each carbon atom in the following molecule. (The arrangement of atoms is given; you need to determine how many bonds connect each pair of atoms.)
  4. Write Lewis structures for NF3 and PF5. On the basis of hybrid orbitals, explain the fact that NF3, PF3, and PF5 are stable molecules, but NF5 does not exist.
  5. In addition to NF3, two other fluoro derivatives of nitrogen are known: N2F4 and N2F2. What shapes do you predict for these two molecules? What is the hybridization for the nitrogen in each molecule?