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The Agrarians advocate to a peasant utopian communalism

Medieval Europe[edit]

Medieval political philosophy in Europe was heavily influenced by Christian thinking. It had much in common with the Mutazilite Islamic thinking in that the Roman Catholics thought subordinating philosophy to theology did not subject reason to revelation but in the case of contradictions, subordinated reason to faith as the Asharite of Islam. The Scholastics by combining the philosophy of Aristotle with the Christianity of St. Augustine emphasized the potential harmony inherent in reason and revelation.[20] Perhaps the most influential political philosopher of medieval Europe was St. Thomas Aquinas who helped reintroduce Aristotle‘s works, which had only been transmitted to Catholic Europe through MuslimSpain, along with the commentaries of Averroes. Aquinas’s use of them set the agenda, for scholastic political philosophy dominated European thought for centuries even unto the Renaissance.[21]

Some medieval political philosophers, such as Aquinas in his Summa Theologica, developed the idea that a king who is a tyrant is no king at all and could be overthrown. Others, like Nicole Oresme in his Livre de Politiques, categorically denied this right to overthrow an unjust ruler.

The Magna Carta, viewed by many as a cornerstone of Anglo-American political liberty, explicitly proposes the right to revolt against the ruler for justice’s sake. Other documents similar to Magna Carta are found in other European countries such as Spain and Hungary.[2