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Test for Homogeneity

Distribution and One-Way ANOVA

 THE NORMAL DISTRIBUTION

a. Suppose a 15 to 18-year-old male from Chile was 168 cm tall from 2009 to 2010. The z-score when x = 168 cm is z = _______. This z-score tells you that x = 168 is ________ standard deviations to the ________ (right or left) of the mean _____ (What is the mean?).

Solution 6.3 a. –0.32, 0.32, left, 170

b. Suppose that the height of a 15 to 18-year-old male from Chile from 2009 to 2010 has a z-score of z = 1.27. What is the male’s height? The z-score (z = 1.27) tells you that the male’s height is ________ standard deviations to the __________ (right or left) of the mean.

Solution 6.3 b. 177.98, 1.27, right

6.3 Use the information in Example 6.3 to answer the following questions. a. Suppose a 15 to 18-year-old male from Chile was 176 cm tall from 2009 to 2010. The z-score when x = 176 cm

is z = _______. This z-score tells you that x = 176 cm is ________ standard deviations to the ________ (right or left) of the mean _____ (What is the mean?).

b. Suppose that the height of a 15 to 18-year-old male from Chile from 2009 to 2010 has a z-score of z = –2. What is the male’s height? The z-score (z = –2) tells you that the male’s height is ________ standard deviations to the __________ (right or left) of the mean.

Example

From 1984 to 1985, the mean height of 15 to 18-year-old males from Chile was 172.36 cm, and the standard deviation was 6.34 cm. Let Y = the height of 15 to 18-year-old males from 1984 to 1985. Then Y ~ N(172.36, 6.34).

The mean height of 15 to 18-year-old males from Chile from 2009 to 2010 was 170 cm with a standard deviation of 6.28 cm. Male heights are known to follow a normal distribution. Let X = the height of a 15 to 18-year-old male from Chile in 2009 to 2010. Then X ~ N(170, 6.28).

Find the z-scores for x = 160.58 cm and y = 162.85 cm. Interpret each z-score. What can you say about x = 160.58 cm and y = 162.85 cm?

Solution 6.4 The z-score for x = 160.58 is z = –1.5. The z-score for y = 162.85 is z = –1.5. Both x = 160.58 and y = 162.85 deviate the same number of standard deviations from their respective means and in the same direction.

6.4 In 2012, 1,664,479 students took the SAT exam. The distribution of scores in the verbal section of the SAT had a mean µ = 496 and a standard deviation σ = 114. Let X = a SAT exam verbal section score in 2012. Then X ~ N(496, 114).

Find the z-scores for x1 = 325 and x2 = 366.21. Interpret each z-score. What can you say about x1 = 325 and x2 = 366.21?

| THE NORMAL DISTRIBUTION

Example

Suppose x has a normal distribution with mean 50 and standard deviation 6.

• About 68% of the x values lie between –1σ = (–1)(6) = –6 and 1σ = (1)(6) = 6 of the mean 50. The values 50 – 6 = 44 and 50 + 6 = 56 are within one standard deviation of the mean 50. The z-scores are –1 and +1 for 44 and 56, respectively.

• About 95% of the x values lie between –2σ = (–2)(6) = –12 and 2σ = (2)(6) = 12. The values 50 – 12 = 38 and 50 + 12 = 62 are within two standard deviations of the mean 50. The z-scores are –2 and +2 for 38 and 62, respectively.

• About 99.7% of the x values lie between –3σ = (–3)(6) = –18 and 3σ = (3)(6) = 18 of the mean 50. The values 50 – 18 = 32 and 50 + 18 = 68 are within three standard deviations of the mean 50. The z-scores are –3 and +3 for 32 and 68, respectively.

6.5 Suppose X has a normal distribution with mean 25 and standard deviation five. Between what values of x do 68% of the values lie