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Test Design Techniques

Maria’s test results are presented in Table 13.2. Although both raw and standard scores are provided for illustrative purposes, it is the responsibility of the test user or examiner in any testing situation to know the applicability of each test to specific individuals and to employ norms appropriately (American Educational Research Association et al., 1999).

Maria’s performance on the WISC-III resulted in a Verbal IQ score of 72, a Performance IQ score of 87, and a Full Scale IQ score of 77. This pattern of better Performance compared to Verbal IQ score is common among Hispanic children, especially those whose first language is Spanish. With the exception of the Verbal Comprehension index score, which was below average, Maria’s index scores were in the average to low-average range.

Maria was administered two receptive language subtests from the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals—Third Edition (CELF-III) in Spanish and scored in the low-average to average range. She refused to converse in Spanish with the examiner, precluding administration of any of the expressive language subtests. Qualitative observations of subtest performance revealed that she had particular difficulty with lengthy and complex directions. She was unable to follow three-step directions and had difficulty with right-left orientation. Her ability to follow directions on the Token Test was consistent with the CELF-III. She was able to follow some multistep instructions in English but had difficulty with more complex syntax. She was administered the Boston Naming Test and asked for the names of objects in Spanish whenever she made an error in English. This did not appreciably improve her performance. There was only one item (comb) that she was able to name in Spanish but not in English, and she was unable to name a broom in either language