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Survey and sampling design

The data for this article comes from a survey of a representative sample of 1,380 individuals from five administrative units (AUs) in greater Khartoum. Greater Khartoum consists of the 23 out of 36 AUs in Khartoum State that contain any urban residential population according to Sudan’s 2008 census, and it encompasses the three historic cities of Bahri, Omdurman, and Khartoum at the confluence of the Nile. We conducted an initial round of interviews in November and December 2010, prior to the South Sudanese referendum on independence, and a follow-up in the fall of 2011, after Southern independence had been realized. Our analysis below uses the data from 2010, except when we make explicit use of additional information collected in 2011 to test the robustness of our results.