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state of hyperthyroidism, goiter, and exophthalmos.

Graves’ disease Graves’ disease is a state of hyperthyroidism, goiter, and exophthalmos. The cause of graves’ disease and the development of the exophthalmos, which results from edema and cellular infiltration of the orbital structures and muscle, is poorly understood. Current evidence suggest that it is an immune disorder characterized by abnormal stimulation of the thyroid gland by thyroid – stimulating antibodies that act through the normal TSH receptors. The exophthalmos is thought to result from an exophthalmos-producing factor whose action is enhanced by anti bodies. The ophthalmopathy of Graves’ disease can cause severe eye problems, including paralysis of the extraocular muscles, involvement of the optic nerve with some visual loss, and corneal ulceration since the lid do not close over the protruding eyeball. Thyroid storm Thyroid storm (crisis) is an extreme and life threatening form of thyrotoxicosis. It is often precipitated by stress, such as infection, by diabetic ketoacidosis, by physical or emotional trauma, or by manipulation of a hyperactive thyroid gland during thyroidectomy. Thyroid storm is manifested by a very high Pathophysiology 179 fever, extreme cardiovascular effects and severe central nervous system effects. The mortality rate is high. Thyroid storm requires rapid diagnosis and implementation of treatment.