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social and environmental justice and human equity

Urban social justice is a term that suggests that inequalities are socially produced rather than bound in universal truths. In contrast with theories of social justice that are based on a theoretical construct, the term urban social justice suggests that social justice is embedded in social processes that are directly related to the mode of production as it is expressed spatially. Cities are spaces of oppressionand inequality but they are also spaces of political liberation. For Marxist political economists urban social justice is created and produced through a dialectical relationship between the oppression and inequality created by the factors of production in cities and by the spaces of freedom also located in cities.

Much like traditional thinking about justice and social justice, urban social justice is about equitable processes and outcomes and it assumes a role for the state in their production. Questions focus on what is being distributed, how it is distributed, and with what outcome. Will just processes produce just outcomes or are inequalities better addressed through redistribution? Can the mode of production remain the same and produce just outcomes? At what scale is social justice produced? Is economic inequality the only source of oppression and injustice? If it is not, what alternative processes are necessary to produce social justice? Is it possible and/or desirable to create a universal idea of justice in multicultural societies? If justice is socially produced and is different for different groups, do intra- and inter-group cleavages become problems?