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Skin and mucus membrane

Hyperthyroidism Hyperthyroidism, or thyrotoxicosis, results from excessive delivery of thyroid hormone to the peripheral tissue. It is seen most frequently in women 20 to 40 years of age. It is commonly associated with hyperplasia of the thyroid gland, Pathophysiology 177 multinodular goiter, and adenoma of the thyroid. Occasionally it develops as the result of the ingestion an overdose of thyroid hormone. When the condition is accompanied by exophthalmos and goiter, it is called graves’ disease. Thyroid crisis, or storm, is an acutely exaggerated manifestation of the hyperthyroid state. Many of the manifestations of hyperthyroidism are related to the increase in oxygen consumption and increased utilization of metabolic fuels associated with the hyper metabolic state as well as the increase in sympathetic nervous system activity that occurs. The fact that many of the signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism resemble those of excessive sympathetic activity suggests that the thyroid hormone may heighten the sensitivity of the body to the cadecholamines or that thyroid hormone itself may act as a pseudo catecholamine. With the hypermetabolic state, there are frequent complaints of nervousness, irritability, and fatigability. Weight loss is common despite a good appetite. Other manifestations include tachycardia, palpitations, shortness of breath, excessive sweating, and heat intolerance. The person appears restless and has a fine muscle tremor. Even in persons without exophthalmos there is an abnormal retraction of the eyelids and infrequent blinking and patients appear to be staring. The hair and skin are usually thin and have a silky Pathophysiology 178 appearance. Hyperthyroidism can be treated by surgical, radioactive iodine or the use of drugs.