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‘‘Secession and the Limits of Taxation: Toward a Theory of Internal Exit.’’

Little individual-level research has linked political violence to deteriorating intergroup attitudes and behaviors, and existing studies have focused largely on terrorist threats in developed countries such as the United States and Israel. Perceptions of terrorist threat have been associated with Jewish Israeli opposition to civil and political rights for Palestinians (Canetti-Nisim, Ariely, and Halperin, 2008), riskminimizing behaviors in post-9/11 New York (Huddy et al. 2002), as well as negative stereotyping and support for harsh immigration and security policies directed at Arabs in a national sample of Americans (Huddy et al. 2005).5 Security threats appear to fuel intolerance (Wang and Chang 2006) and a willingness to curtail civil libertie