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Hyperplasia:- – It is defined as increase of tissue mass due to an increase in the number of cells. – It occurs in cells that are under increased physiologic workload or stimulations. I.e. the cells are capable of dividing thus increasing their numbers. Types of Hyperplasia Pathophysiology 6 a) Physiologic Hyperplasia: occurs when there hormonal stimulation – Occurs in puberty and pregnancy b) Compensatory-Hyperplasia – Occurs in organs that are capable of regenerating lost tissues. Eg. When part of liver is destroyed. c) Pathologic Hyperplasia – Is seen in abnormal stimulation of organs with cells that are capable of regeneration. E.g. Enlargement of Thyroid gland due to TSH from pituitary gland. IV) Hypertrophy – Is an increase in the size of individual cells, resulting in increased tissue mass with out an increase in the number of cells. – It is usually response of a specific organ to an increased demand for work. Example: – Enlargement of muscles in Athletes V) Metaplasia • Metaplasia is a reversible change in which one type of adult cell is replaced by another type. • It is an adaptive substitution of one cell type more suitable to the hostile environment for another. Pathophysiology 7 Eg. – Replacement of the normal columnar, ciliated goblet cells of the bronchial mucosa by Stratified squamous epithelial cells in chronic smokers.