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Sales Process Engineering: A Personal Workshop

A marketing orientation has been defined as a “philosophy of business management.” [20] or “a corporate state of mind” [21] or as an “organisation[al] culture” [22] Although scholars continue to debate the precise nature of specific orientations that inform marketing practice, the most commonly cited orientations are as follows:[23]Product[edit]A firm employing a product orientation is mainly concerned with the quality of its own product. A product orientation is based on the assumption that, all things being equal, consumers will purchase products of a superior quality. The approach is most effective when the firm has deep insights into customers and their needs and desires derived from research and (or) intuition and understands consumers’ quality expectations and price they are willing to pay. For example, Sony Walkman and Apple iPod were innovative product designs that addressed consumers’ unmet needs. Although the product orientation has largely been supplanted by the marketing orientation, firms practicing a product orientation can still be found in haute couture and in arts marketing.[24][25]Sales[edit]Further information: History of marketing § Selling orientationA firm using a sales orientation focuses primarily on the selling/promotion of the firm’s existing products, rather than determining new or unmet consumer needs or desires. Consequently, this entails simply selling existing products, using promotion and direct sales techniques to attain the highest sales possible.[26] The sales orientation “is typically practiced with unsought goods.” [27] One study found that industrial companies are more likely to hold a sales orientation than consumer goods companies.[28] The approach may also suit scenarios in which a firm holds dead stock, or otherwise sells a product that is in high demand, with little likelihood of changes in consumer tastes diminishing demandA 2011 meta analyses[29] has found that the factors with the greatest impact on sales performance are a salesperson’s sales related knowledge (knowledge of market segments, sales presentation skills, conflict resolution, and products), degree of adaptiveness (changing behavior based on the aforementioned knowledge), role clarity (salesperson’s role is to expressly to sell), cognitive aptitude (intelligence) and work engagement (motivation and interest in a sales role).