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Relational Model and CODD Rules

Confidentiality

A secure system ensures the confidentiality of data. This means that it allows individuals to see only the data which they are supposed to see. Confidentiality has several different aspects, discussed in these sections:

Privacy of Communications

How can you ensure the privacy of data communications? Privacy is a very broad concept. For the individual, it involves the ability to control the spread of confidential information such as health, employment, and credit records. In the business world, privacy may involve trade secrets, proprietary information about products and processes, competitive analyses, as well as marketing and sales plans. For governments, privacy involves such issues as the ability to collect and analyze demographic information, while protecting the confidentiality of millions of individual citizens. It also involves the ability to keep secrets that affect the country’s interests.

Secure Storage of Sensitive Data

How can you ensure that data remains private, once it has been collected? Once confidential data has been entered, its integrity and privacy must be protected on the databases and servers where it resides.

Authenticated Users

How can you designate the persons and organizations who have the right to see data? Authentication is a way of implementing decisions about whom to trust. Authentication methods seek to guarantee the identity of system users: that a person is who he says he is, and not an impostor.

Granular Access Control

How much data should a particular user see? Access control is the ability to cordon off portions of the database, so that access to the data does not become an all-or-nothing proposition. A clerk in the Human Relations department might need some access to the emp table–but he should not be permitted to access salary information for the entire company. The granularity of access control is the degree to which data access can be differentiated for particular tables, views, rows, and columns of a database.

Note the distinction between authentication, authorization, and access control. Authentication is the process by which a user’s identity is checked. When a user is authenticated, he is verified as an authorized user of an application. Authorization is the process by which the user’s privileges are ascertained. Access control is the process by which the user’s access to physical data in the application is limited, based on his privileges. These are critical issues in distributed systems. For example, if JAUSTEN is trying to access the database, authentication would identify her as a a valid user. Authorization would verify her right to connect to the database with Product Manager privileges. Access control would enforce the Product Manager privileges upon her user session.